Join our new courses on PLS-SEM using SmartPLS 4:

Corporate Reputation Case Study Files for SmartPLS 4 are Avaliable for Download!

We have updated the case study files of the 3rd edition of the Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) using the SmartPLS 4 software. Each chapter shows the corresponding analysis steps (e.g., reflective model evaluation) by means of the latest SmartPLS version. You can download the files (one .zip file) here.

Check out the Second Edition of the Advanced PLS-SEM Book

Hair, J. F.,  Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Gudergan, S. P. (2024). Advanced Issues in Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling, 2nd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

The Primer on PLS-SEM in French!

New open access book! Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Using R

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., Sarstedt, M., Danks, N.P., & Ray, S. (2021). Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) Using R. Cham: Springer.








Brief Description

This practical guide provides a step-by-step treatment of the major choices facing researchers when applying partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) using R, a free software environment for statistical computing, which runs on Windows, MacOS, and UNIX computer platforms. Adopting the R software’s SEMinR package, which brings a friendly syntax to creating and estimating structural equation models, each chapter offers a concise overview of relevant topics and metrics, followed by an in-depth description of a case study. Simple instructions give readers the “how-tos” of using SEMinR to obtain solutions and document their results. Rules of thumb in every chapter provide guidelines on best practices in the application and interpretation of PLS-SEM.


Book Features

  • This book is open access, which means that you have free and unlimited access

  • Offers concise guidelines on how to apply and interpret PLS-SEM results

  • Includes an illustrative step-by-step application of PLS-SEM within the R software environment

  • Draws on the highly user-friendly SEMinR package, co-developed by two of the co-authors

  • Adopts a case study approach that focuses on the illustration of relevant analysis steps

The 3rd Edition of the Primer on PLS-SEM is out!

Hair, J. F., Hult, G. T. M., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2022). A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM), 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.


Get it worldwide via Google Play Books!







Brief Description

With applications using SmartPLS — the primary software used in partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) — this practical guide provides concise instructions on how to use this evolving statistical technique to conduct research and obtain solutions. Featuring the latest research, new examples, and expanded discussions throughout, the third edition is designed to be easily understood by those with limited statistical and mathematical training who want to pursue research opportunities in new ways.


New to this edition

  • All screenshots and instructions have been updated for the latest edition of the SmartPLS 3 software.
  • The latest research on the nature of composite-based modeling provides a more thorough conceptual foundation for PLS-SEM.
  • More on the distinction between PLS-SEM and CB-SEM helps readers choose the right technique for their project.
  • Applications of PLS-SEM with secondary or archival data shows readers even more applications for this approach.
  • Improved guidelines for generating and validating single-item measures for redundancy analyses and determining minimum sample sizes help clarify these steps.
  • Coverage of model fit, analysis of predictive power, and metrics of model comparison have all been expanded for a richer discussion of PLS-SEM.
  • A thoroughly revised and updated Chapter 7 on mediator and moderator analysis covers more types of mediation, and provides updated explanations and guidelines on moderated mediation.
  • Extended coverage of more advanced concepts helps readers go further with PLS-SEM
  • Summaries are now structured by learning outcome for improved organization.

Hear from Marko Sarstedt about the new edition's unique features!

New Courses on PLS-SEM

ONLINE COURSE: Partial Least Squares SEM Using SmartPLS: Foundations and Advanced Topics

Foundations on PLS-SEM: November 04-05, 2021

Advanced topics in PLS-SEM: November 25-26, 2021


Visit the SmartPLS webpages to get to know other upcoming courses on PLS-SEM.

24/7 Online Courses!

You want to learn the basics of PLS-SEM or dive into more advanced topics such as moderation, mediation, or higher-order models? Join the PLS-SEM Academy and learn everything you need to know about the method. Here are some of the Academy's key benefits:

  • More than seven hours of video material on the principles and advanced topics in PLS-SEM

  • Based on the famous PLS-SEM books

  • Presented by world-wide renown instructors

  • Covers the latest developments in PLS-SEM as requested by reviewers and journal editors

  • Comprehensive lecturing slides included

  • Annotated outputs from SmartPLS illustrate all analyses step-by-step

  • Certificate after successful completion of the final exam

Go to PLS-SEM Academy and check out the freel trial lectures.

2024 International Conference on
Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling

September 03-07, 2024
Sunway University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Pre-conference workshop by Prof. Ramayah: September 03, 2024

Post-conference workshop by Christian M. Ringle and Marko Sarstedt: September 06, 2024

The Primer on PLS-SEM in Spanish!


Hair, J.F., Hult, G.T.M., Ringle, C.M, Sarstedt, M., Castillo Apraiz, J., Cepeda Carrión, G.A., an Roldán, J.L. (2019). Manual de Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) (Segunda Edición). OmniaScience.

PLS-SEM Courses and Training

Please visit
for the latest information on upcoming courses.